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AB 266 & AB 643


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#1 GrooT'mag

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Posted 25 July 2015 - 03:21 PM

october 2015

 

2017

 

2018...... the end

 

lots of change coming to cali........

be ready for the change.

good , bad or ..............

 

Attached File  IMG_2050.JPG   519.75KB   0 downloads


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#2 twistyman

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Posted 25 July 2015 - 03:25 PM

fuck I wish everyone would get on same page with the weed laws..up her

e Govt is 100% against any weed..th

the head of canada's cops says they are not interested in going after none gang/dealer weed people then we get this shit..
https://ca.news.yaho...-120000241.html

 
 
 
Marijuana dispensary shut down by police, owners may face charges cbclogo-sm-sharp-175812-jpg_045904.jpgCBC – 3 hours ago
  •  

    CBC - Marijuana dispensary shut down by police, owners may face charges

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  • Marijuana dispensary shut down by police, owners may face charges

 

A police raid on a marijuana dispensary in Edmonton is leaving people who use the substance to ease their medical conditions without anywhere to get it.

Members of ALERT's Green Team shut down the Mobile Access Compassionate Resources Society [MACROS] on Wednesday. MACROS operated at the back of a hemp store on 118th Avenue.

President Aaron Bott works at the store with his parents and his brother. He says his mother was arrested when she went to open up the shop. He was also arrested when he arrived at the store on 118th Avenue.

"I was hoping that they would just talk to us and be considerate of what we are doing here," he said about the police. "Which there was nothing."

Police also raided his parents' home and took the marijuana they grow to deal with their own medical conditions.

Bott says his family has operated MACROS for 11 years without any run-ins with the law.

The organization is a non-profit and offers medical marijuana and advice to people who suffer from ailments like cancer, epilepsy and chronic pain.

He says he is now fielding calls from members who will have to turn to the streets, licensed producers or possibly to compassionate societies in B.C.

Ryan Wolff, 22, has a licence to legally obtain medical marijuana.  Wolff has a nerve condition that causes painful spasms in his ankles.

After trying massage, acupuncture and a wide range of painkillers, including oxycontin and percocet, Wolff discovered that marijuana helped.

"That is the only thing that stops that spasm or at least calms it down to a manageable point."

Wolff first got his marijuana from Saskatchewan but started going to MACROS because it was just 20 minutes away. He got products there as well as support and advice.

Now that MACROS has been shut down, Wolff says he is fighting back. He is telling his story to the media. He made calls to the mayor's office and to the office of Stony Plain Conservative MP Rona Ambrose, who is also the federal health minister.

He believes MACROS can be saved if enough people speak out.

Bott hasn't yet been charged but he is preparing himself for a possible battle in court.

"I don't look at myself as a criminal," he said. "I look at myself as a person who helps patients access medicine that they choose to take


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Growing weed is like watching grass grow...

 

 


#3 GrooT'mag

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Posted 25 July 2015 - 04:35 PM

they are doing the same here.

new patient laws are good, they just cant sell it after 2016

 

new collective laws have to register, be in proper zoning, get licensed and follow the rules, if they wish to sell to retail.

 

it will be the bad (lazy,greedy) owner/operators that get busted and run out of town.

 

its a mind set........ do or die.

 

vote in mj minded politicians....... if thats possible?

 

city, county, state officials will make or break your geo-political location. 

 

it may be time to move to a friendly county if this is your true passion.


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#4 Sixstring

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Posted 25 July 2015 - 05:44 PM

bunch of political tax law bullshizzle.these greedy fucks will just keep adding/making laws untill we are all back underground/black market style.i dont mind paying 6-10% but i refuse to pay 20 or 30% taxes on my small op and i think even the bigger ops should pay a reasonable rate.


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Michigan Medical Compliant   tongue.png

 

shit happens,rama lama ding dong   :P

 

 


#5 GrooT'mag

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Posted 01 August 2015 - 03:07 PM

out of the way Haag !

there be weed to smoke

 

http://mjbizdaily.co...-stepping-down/


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#6 GrooT'mag

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Posted 10 August 2015 - 03:00 PM

Get your shit together Cali 

 

 

there is a tsunami coming,

butane is also unhealthy bad, because you can not take out the hydrocarbons that are considered residual residue.

 

i'd say its healthy for the individual recreational smoker, but it is certainly not healty for the sick and children.

 

there is a whipping machine that can purge this hydro carbon but it is very expen$ive....... its already illegal in washington state.

 

dont get caught

 

 

 

 

 

For the last several years, hash oil has seen an increase in popularity. Walking hand-in-hand with that rise in popularity has been an increase of dangerous accidents involving one particular method of hash extraction. Known as Butane Hash Oil extraction, the process is relatively easy to do at home but one small mistake can lead to explosive results.

In California, Gov. Jerry Brown recently signed into law a bill, SB 212, which increases the penalties on individuals caught manufacturing marijuana concentrate products through BHO extraction. Under SB 212, using the BHO extraction process in a residential area will become an aggravated felony.

In 2014, 32 Californians died from BHO extraction-related explosions. While that may seem like a small number from a statistical viewpoint, random explosions can prove to be problematic from a public policy perspective.

The bill also increased the penalties on individuals manufacturing methamphetamine.

According to California Newswire, bill sponsor Sen. Tony Mendoza thanked Gov. Brown for signing the law.

“This new law will help protect our neighborhoods and schools from those who manufacture illegal drugs,” Mendoza said. “Not only is BHO or methamphetamine manufacturing illegal, but it is an extremely dangerous and highly volatile activity that can result in large explosions, causing extreme bodily injury, death and property damage.”

It is important to note that this does not mean that businesses are barred from using the BHO extraction process. As long as businesses follow proper safety guidelines and are properly zoned and licensed, SB 212 will have little effect on the industry.

Another point worth mentioning is that this bill only bans one method of hash oil extraction. Extracting hash oil using CO2 or by using the ice-water separation method is still perfectly legal.

Gov. Brown also signed into law a bill that takes aim at the state’s multitude of illegal marijuana grow-sites.

Introduced by Sen. Bill MonningSB 165 will allow the California Department of Fish and Wildlife to levy heavy fines on illegal marijuana grow operations. Although California has always been rife with clandestine marijuana grow operations, the number of illegal grows has increase in recent years, taking a heavy toll on the environment.

According to the LA Times, law enforcement officers seized 609,480 marijuana plants, 15,839 pounds of processed marijuana, and 135 dams which were cumulatively diverting approximately 5 million gallons of water. While that may not seem like the most heinous of crimes, in drought stricken California, water theft is no joke.

It is unknown what kind of effect heavy civil penalties will have on the number of illegal marijuana grows but the hope is that the increased fines will at the very least incentivize would-be marijuana growers to pursue legal cultivation over clandestine operations.


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#7 GrooT'mag

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Posted 12 September 2015 - 02:46 PM

http://www.latimes.c...0910-story.html

 

 

They will create a new Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation (BMMR) within the state Department of Consumer Affairs that would oversee a multiagency licensing and regulatory effort. It would rely on expertise from the California Department of Food and Agriculture and the Department of Public Health, according to Assemblyman Rob Bonta (D-Alameda), an author of one of the bills.

 

if you want to grow weed small, medium or large, you will have to follow the same rules as other farmers. -CDAg


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#8 GrooT'mag

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Posted 12 September 2015 - 08:04 PM

http://mjbizdaily.co...na-regulations/

 

Under the gun and almost out of time, lawmakers in California approved historic regulations on the state’s medical marijuana industry late Friday night, setting the stage for the largest MMJ market in the country to finally adopt comprehensive rules on cannabis businesses.

Legislators approved a package of three separate bills, all of which were contingent upon each other, just as the 2015 legislative came to a close.

The bills head now to Gov. Jerry Brown, who is expected to sign them.

The measures – Assembly Bills 266 and 243, and Senate Bill 643 – call for a whopping 17 types of business licenses, including 10 separate cultivation permits based on the size of the grow and whether the operation is indoor or outdoor. Businesses that handle marijuana also reportedly would be able to register as for-profit entities instead of operating solely as nonprofits, making the market much more attractive to investors and entrepreneurs.

“After two decades of no regulation, we will finally have a comprehensive regulatory framework for medical marijuana,” state Sen. Mike McGuire, who sponsored SB 643, said in a statement. “These regulations are long overdue.”

Nate Bradley, the executive director of the California Cannabis Industry Association, praised lawmakers for getting the trio of bills through.

“We’re very excited that the state finally made it a priority to pass legislation, and while it’s not perfect bills and everything the industry wanted to get, there are a lot of workable parts in it,” Bradley said.

 

 

The state’s governor can now bring to an end nearly two decades of uncertainty for California MMJ business owners, who in many cases have had only local regulations – or no rules at all – to guide them. The new system, though it may prove time-consuming and expensive to comply with, would provide businesses with assurance that they’ll be allowed to continue operating as long as they play by the rules.

It also would introduce some long-term stability to one of the most turbulent markets in the country.

The bills include some of the most wide-ranging regulations in the entire nation for MMJ. Some highlights:

  • Aside from the 10 different types of cultivation licenses, there would two separate licenses for edibles manufacturers and another two for dispensaries. The state would also require licenses for testing labs, distributors and transporters.
  • Mandatory testing would be required for all MMJ products, and testing labs would have to follow strict guidelines.
  • The state would enact limits on water use for growers and require distributors to meet quality assurance rules.
  • Delivery services would only be allowed if directly tied to a dispensary.
  • Businesses could not use packaging that’s attractive to children, and labels would need to include a warning that the products include a Schedule 1 controlled substance.
  • The state would set rules on pesticide use, and cannabis businesses would need to keep detailed records of all commercial MMJ activity for a minimum of seven years.

Under the measures, businesses would have to obtain both state and local licenses in order to operate, and local governments could still exercise veto power over commercial marijuana operations in their jurisdictions.

The bills would create a new Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation within the state Department of Consumer Affairs, though other agencies – such as the Department of Food and Agriculture and the Water Resources Control Board – would also help oversee the industry. Further rulemaking would likely play out for the industry over the next year or so, including specific licensing fees.

Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom said in a statement that the MMJ regulations will also pave the way for recreational cannabis legalization in 2016, SFGate reported.

Though the rules themselves aren’t expected to go into full effect until early 2018, Bradley said, there’s a lot of groundwork still to be done in coming years.

“We’re looking forward to working with the state over the next few years on cleanup legislation and regulations,” Bradley said.

He added that he expects the new regulatory clarity to help the industry grow, since a lot of California towns and counties banned MMJ operations due to a lack of state rules.

“There are a lot of towns that didn’t do it because it’s a huge gray area, and now, if they want to make any tax money off of (MMJ), they’re going to have to regulate it,” Bradley said.

The legislative victory can be chalked up to literally dozens of stakeholders involved in closed-door negotiations that lasted weeks, if not months, including the California League of Cities, the law enforcement lobby, at least two unions, dispensary owners, the California Cannabis Industry Association and California NORML.

Gov. Brown got involved this past week as well, suggesting some new bill language that he reportedly assured lawmakers that he would support.

California has tried to pass statewide medical cannabis regulations multiple times over the years, but deep differences among lawmakers and key stakeholders over what rules should look like sunk previous attempts.


Edited by GrooT'mag, 12 September 2015 - 08:05 PM.

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#9 Oaksterdam420raider

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Posted 12 September 2015 - 09:55 PM

This is awesome! One more big step on the way to legalization.

Mandatory testing would be required for all MMJ products, and testing labs would have to follow strict guidelines.

^^^^^^^^^ this is one of the things I'm excited about too! Good stuff T
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#10 GrooT'mag

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Posted 13 September 2015 - 03:50 AM

word

 

several labs have gone out of biz around here...... karma worked its self out..... the good ones will prevail.

california will have growing pains for the next 18 months as they build the frame work.... just like in washington and in oregon.

people will go crazy while waiting for the regs to kick in.

labs / producers processors will jockey for positions....... its gonna be a rat race for the next year or so.

 

 

California is big news....we all have been waiting for cali to go legit..... it will be good for america....... but i still side on caution when i see reports lie this:

 

 

The law enforcement-backed regulations call for a robust, modern, fully functional medical cannabis industry, subject to stringent regulation. The days of the Wild West in America’s first medical pot system are coming to an end.

“This will move us forward in the state of California with respect to medical cannabis. It’s been 20 years we’ve been stalled, and we have the opportunity to move in a different direction

 

 

 

Shoot,,,,, 20 years is only 7200 dyaz.......... what will you do for the next 7200 dayz?


Edited by GrooT'mag, 13 September 2015 - 03:51 AM.

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#11 Oaksterdam420raider

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Posted 13 September 2015 - 04:25 AM

Grow my own pot in my basement! :D
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#12 Oaksterdam420raider

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Posted 13 September 2015 - 04:31 AM

But in order to do this I'll have to make a seed run one day. To bolster my seed stock
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#13 GrooT'mag

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Posted 13 September 2015 - 05:35 AM

the off the grid guys will never die out. we'll always be here

 

get ready for a bumpy ride

its hard to unlearn the learned

 

 

hey ! they saved patients and doctors

sensible

 

http://m.eastbayexpr...ulations-ab-266


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#14 Meatman

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Posted 14 September 2015 - 03:02 AM

Wish itd go federal cuz this shit is dumb an illegal plant what kinda bs is that I mean hell um the goverment in the us only wants control because there are more uses for the plant than any other a great read if you guys havent read it is the million dollar crop it all became illegal because of the oil industry corporate power
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how many licks does it take to get to the center of a cannabis pop 1..2..3... a 3.....

#15 Delta 9

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Posted 14 September 2015 - 10:33 AM

Another good one if you haven't read it already meatman is Jack Herer's classic  " The Emperor Wears No Clothes". It was the cocksuck Harry Anslinger who started the reefer madness campaign in cahoots with du-pont chemical company as hemp would compete as a natural cheap option to their new wonder material " nylon".

 

But I guess it steps on the toes of lots of big buisiness, pretty much every big business you can imagine as it has so many uses and it's just a plant that grows in the dirt by itself, how can you make a profit out of that and control people at the same time ? ( leagalise it lol)


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#16 mactheman

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Posted 14 September 2015 - 01:49 PM

Another good one if you haven't read it already meatman is Jack Herer's classic  " The Emperor Wears No Clothes". It was the cocksuck Harry Anslinger who started the reefer madness campaign in cahoots with du-pont chemical company as hemp would compete as a natural cheap option to their new wonder material " nylon".

 

But I guess it steps on the toes of lots of big buisiness, pretty much every big business you can imagine as it has so many uses and it's just a plant that grows in the dirt by itself, how can you make a profit out of that and control people at the same time ? ( leagalise it lol)

===== not only industry Delta dont forget the Drug companies ,,its going to make a difference to some of their profits now,,, like you said Delta bet they hate the thought of a plant thats easy to grow by most people and medicine that easy to make ,,,, peace,mac


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:ph34r:_4uthe man from the uk/weed :lol:

 

        i know nothing 

 


#17 twistyman

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Posted 14 September 2015 - 01:54 PM

1152034894.jpg
How Buildings Made From Cannabis (Hemp) Can Change The World

Photo by Peter White via Flickr Creative Commons. In the Renewable House of BRE's Innovation Park, John O'Brien (L) explains how Hempcrete walling 'locks in' carbon.

 
11
comments
 
 
134
by Russ Belville

on January 28, 2015

If you’ve spent any time around marijuana consumers, you’ve no doubt run into the Hempster. He or she is that proponent of industrial hemp who preaches the gospel of Hemp Will Save the Planet, who reminds you at every opportunity that marijuana may be great for medicine and getting high, but the real value of cannabis is in the industrial hemp that can be made into food, fuel, fiber, plastics, paper, and so much more, man!

“Hemp’s not illegal ‘cause marijuana’s a drug,” one Hempster told me, “marijuana’s illegal ‘cause hemp’s an oil!”

Having worked in the marijuana law reform movement for a decade now, I’ve run into plenty of Hempsters. While I’m sympathetic to overturning the idiocy of banning an industrial crop with no properties of a drug, I’m also skeptical whenever someone presents “silver bullet” thinking that portrays complex problems solved with simplistic answers. Hemp’s not going to save the world, I’d argue, without concomitant solutions for wealth inequality, religious extremism, ethnic warfare and overpopulation.

Besides, I believe in greed; if hemp were really all that Hempsters make it out to be, why wouldn’t China be taking greater advantage of its legal hemp cultivation status? Have you seen photos of the smog in Shanghai? Why wouldn’t their government be converting all their vehicles to hemp biodiesel and manufacturing all the wonderful things hemp can provide, both to improve their economy and their environment? There must be other complex reasons why hemp isn’t saving China yet, much less the world.

I intended to find out. In early January, I attended a hands-on hemp seminar that may make a Hempster out of me yet. Produced by Hemp Technologies Global in partnership with Hemp Ace International, the one-day seminar was focused on just one industrial application of hemp — the building material known as Hempcrete.

Hempcrete is a concrete-like substance you get when you mix hemp, lime and water, and pour it into forms. It’s not just any hemp; specifically, you need the hemp hurd fibers from the core of a hemp stalk. (The pile of stalks you have from your medical marijuana garden won’t work, explained Hemp Ace’s Joy Beckerman-Maher to an attendee who asked.) It’s also not made from just any lime, either, I learned. While I knew the lime-in-de-coconut from the lime-in-de-limestone, I didn’t realize there were different types of lime, otherwise known as calcium carbonate. The water is plain old water, though.

It’s that lime that makes the Hempcrete so special. When lime exists in nature, in the limestone, it is calcium carbonate — CaCO3 (an atom of calcium, carbon, and three oxygen atoms). Fire that up to around 900 degrees Celsius and the carbon dioxide — CO2 (an atom of carbon and two of oxygen) — burns off. That leaves you with calcium oxide, or quicklime — CaO (an atom of calcium and oxygen). Add a small amount of water — H2O (two atoms of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen) — and you get the powdery hydrated lime needed for hempcrete.

When you add more water as you mix the hydrated lime into the hemp hurds, the lime becomes calcium hydroxide — Ca(OH)2 (an atom of calcium and two bonded oxygen and hydrogen atoms). Chemically, calcium hydroxide is unstable and wants to return to being calcium carbonate. Over time, water will evaporate from the hempcrete — two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen — and rushing in to replace it will be carbon dioxide from the atmosphere — a carbon and two oxygens.

That’s far more chemistry than I successfully completed in school, but the bottom line is this: a hempcrete building, if locally sourced, is carbon negative. The carbon footprint of heating up the limestone to 900° C is less than the amount of carbon the hempcrete takes in as it petrifies, also considering the carbon the hemp plants will take in as they grow. The only way that equation doesn’t work is if you have to truck or fly in your hemp from another country, as required by our current national prohibition on industrial hemp.

That prohibition doesn’t exist in Canada and Europe, though, where advocates are installing hempcrete structures as fast as they can. The acknowledged expert in such construction is an Irish fellow named Steve Allin. Through his website, HempBuilding.com, and his organization, the International Hemp Building Association, Allin “has consulted with different projects all over the world, from Austria to Canada and Slovakia to the U.K. and has worked on projects in Switzerland and all over Ireland.”

Prohibition is also denying our American farmers an important cash crop. Canadian hemp farmers are clearing $350 per acre, according to Doug Fine, author of the best-seller Hemp Bound. That’s multiples more than can be cleared with other crops. Hemp can be planted as a rotational crop with soy, wheat, and corn, and the hemp’s deep tap roots help revitalize the soil, while its phytoremediative qualities pull toxins from it. Ultimately, we can restore American family farms and grow a better building material using hemp.

Joy Beckerman-Maher from HempAce showed us some remarkable demonstrations for hemp building provided by Steve Allin. In one video, Allin has set a propane blowtorch up against a brick of Hempcrete, allowing the flame to burn just one inch away. After ten minutes, there is just a small quarter-sized hole of ash, about a centimeter deep. The Hempcrete around the ash is blackened, yet is cool to the touch. Allin explains how Hempcrete is naturally fireproof and if you wanted to fix that burn hole, it would only take a small spackle of fresh Hempcrete over the top of it. The new Hempcrete melds onto the old and nobody would ever know there had been a blowtorch hole there.

OK, so we’ve got this way to make buildings out of hemp and lime, it’s carbon negative and it’s virtually fireproof. That would be enough to sell me on the product, but as they say in the TV ads: hold on, that’s not all. If you’ve ever experienced building a conventional home, you know there is a lot of lumber that goes into the framing. Hempcrete isn’t strong enough to be load-bearing, so a home still needs some lumber, steel, or masonry framing. But Hempcrete is fairly strong, enough so the standard spacing of the wall beams can be increased (so long as building codes allow), meaning less lumber, which saves costs and a few trees.

Still not sold? The Hempcrete that fills in the walls takes the place of that nasty pink fiberglass insulation and that chalky drywall that keeps it covered. Not only does it replace these toxic, environmentally-detrimental building materials, it does a better job.

Remember the evaporation from Hempcrete, that H2O that gets replaced with CO2?  Hempcrete remains hygroscopic — it absorbs and radiates humidity — throughout its life. This process acts as a natural temperature control, allowing the building to absorb daytime heat and release it at night and nighttime cool to release in the day. Allin spoke of bringing his wife to a location with high humidity and 90 degree Fahrenheit temperatures, and watching her cry when she walked into the unfinished Hempcrete building where the temps were in the mid-70s and dry. Even with this hygroscopic characteristic, when it comes to air, the Hempcrete home is very air tight.

And that insulation isn’t limited to just the walls of your home. The insulation factor of a foot-thick of Hempcrete is an R-25. That’s a value suitable for flooring, which would require an eight-inch thick roll of that fiberglass insulation. R-18 is recommended for walls; we can get that with eight inches of Hempcrete.  We can even insulate the roof with Hempcrete; it’s light enough and just twenty inches provides the recommended R-49 value.

Another great selling point for me was the soundproofing capabilities of Hempcrete. Anndrea Hermann from Hemp Technologies spoke of projects to create the soundproofing walls that separate residential areas from major freeways in Europe. In another video, a man manufacturing multi-family dwellings in the United Kingdom praised the ability of Hempcrete to form thin separating walls that more effectively dampen next-door sound than any building project he’s worked on.

Finally, there is the permanence and earth-friendliness of the material. The hemp in a Hempcrete home allows for the transfer of free lime within the structure to any cracks that may develop over time through shifting foundations. It petrifies within the cracks within the walls as if it had the self-healing powers of Wolverine from the X-Men. The long, strong fibers of hemp make it resilient in the face of earthquakes, able to distribute motion and bend without breaking. When it petrifies into its hardened state, it can last hundreds, perhaps thousands of years. But if we need to tear it down someday, every bit of that Hempcrete is biodegradable — rather than trucking it to a landfill, you can literally just plow it under.

So here I am, converted to the gospel of Hempcrete, ready to proselytize to the world an affordable building material that is ecologically sustainable, economically viable, and will help clean our atmosphere of climate-warming carbon dioxide. The only remaining step was my baptism in ‘crete, as Beckerman-Maher led us on a hands-on experience of building our own Hempcrete brick. You can see me build a Hempcrete brick in the video below:

http://reset.me/stor...n-change-world/


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#18 GrooT'mag

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Posted 14 September 2015 - 01:56 PM

here are all the pre-Madonna's......everyone forgets about the scientists who discovered this stuff from 40's-2000

everyone on cashinbis say's they are the one who discovered it!  

https://www.cashinbis.com/

 

 

we are all on the same internet, it is them that leaked out the info.

 

did you guys know that there is 1 super old pharmicutical company from the 20's that has kept plant tissue clones alive since the 20's

real deal no shit !

 

we all here because of those that came before us...... thank those that came before you, thank those who brought back seedz from war.


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#19 slab

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Posted 26 September 2015 - 04:07 PM

The us gov made it illegal to control the "colored" people. Before then the drug companies sold it like aspirin.

TherapeuticSep1908p101.jpg

 

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Posted 26 September 2015 - 04:49 PM

http://www.drugwarra...ijuana-illegal/

 

Why is Marijuana Illegal?
7000-8000 B.C.

 

First woven fabric believed to be from hemp.

1619

Jamestown Colony, Virginia passes law requiring farmers to grow hemp.

1700s

Hemp was the primary crop grown by George Washington at Mount Vernon, and a secondary crop grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello.

1884

Maine is the first state to outlaw alcohol.

1906

Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, forming the Food and Drug Administration. First time that drugs have any government oversight.

1913California, apparently, passes the first state marijuana law, though missed by many because it referred to “preparations of hemp, or loco weed.”

1914

Harrison Act passed, outlawing opiates and cocaine (taxing scheme)

1915

Utah passes state anti-marijuana law.

1919

18th Amendment to the Constitution (alcohol prohibition) is ratified.

1930

Harry J. Anslinger given control of the new Federal Bureau of Narcotics (he remains in the position until 1962)

1933

21st Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, repealing alcohol prohibition.

1937

Marijuana Tax Act

1938

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

1951

Boggs Amendment to the Harrison Narcotic Act (mandatory sentences)

1956

Narcotics Control Act adds more severe penalties

1970

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.
Replaces and updates all previous laws concerning narcotics and other dangerous drugs. Empasis on law enforcement. Includes the Controlled Substances Act, where marijuana is classified a Schedule 1 drug (reserved for the most dangerous drugs that have no recognized medical use).

1972

Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act.
Establishes federally funded programs for prevention and treatment

1973

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Changes Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs into the DEA

1974 and 1978

Drug Abuse Treatment and Control Amendments. Extends 1972 act

1988

Anti-Drug Abuse Act.
Establishes oversight office: National Office of Drug Control Policy and the Drug Czar

1992

ADAMHA Reorganization.
Transfers NIDA, NIMH, and NIAAA to NIH and incorporates ADAMHA’s programs into the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

Many people assume that marijuana was made illegal through some kind of process involving scientific, medical, and government hearings; that it was to protect the citizens from what was determined to be a dangerous drug.

The actual story shows a much different picture. Those who voted on the legal fate of this plant never had the facts, but were dependent on information supplied by those who had a specific agenda to deceive lawmakers. You’ll see below that the very first federal vote to prohibit marijuana was based entirely on a documented lie on the floor of the Senate.

You’ll also see that the history of marijuana’s criminalization is filled with:

  • Racism
  • Fear
  • Protection of Corporate Profits
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Ignorant, Incompetent, and/or Corrupt Legislators
  • Personal Career Advancement and Greed

These are the actual reasons marijuana is illegal.

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Background

For most of human history, marijuana has been completely legal. It’s not a recently discovered plant, nor is it a long-standing law. Marijuana has been illegal for less than 1% of the time that it’s been in use. Its known uses go back further than 7,000 B.C. and it was legal as recently as when Ronald Reagan was a boy.

The marijuana (hemp) plant, of course, has an incredible number of uses. The earliest known woven fabric was apparently of hemp, and over the centuries the plant was used for food, incense, cloth, rope, and much more. This adds to some of the confusion over its introduction in the United States, as the plant was well known from the early 1600’s, but did not reach public awareness as a recreational drug until the early 1900’s.

America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia in 1619. It was a law “ordering” all farmers to grow Indian hempseed. There were several other “must grow” laws over the next 200 years (you could be jailed for not growing hemp during times of shortage in Virginia between 1763 and 1767), and during most of that time, hemp was legal tender (you could even pay your taxes with hemp — try that today!) Hemp was such a critical crop for a number of purposes (including essential war requirements – rope, etc.) that the government went out of its way to encourage growth.

The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp “plantations” (minimum 2,000-acre farm) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton.

The Mexican Connection

In the early 1900s, the western states developed significant tensions regarding the influx of Mexican-Americans. The revolution in Mexico in 1910 spilled over the border, with General Pershing’s army clashing with bandit Pancho Villa. Later in that decade, bad feelings developed between the small farmer and the large farms that used cheaper Mexican labor. Then, the depression came and increased tensions, as jobs and welfare resources became scarce.

One of the “differences” seized upon during this time was the fact that many Mexicans smoked marijuana and had brought the plant with them, and it was through this that California apparently passed the first state marijuana law, outlawing “preparations of hemp, or loco weed.”

However, one of the first state laws outlawing marijuana may have been influenced, not just by Mexicans using the drug, but, oddly enough, because of Mormons using it. Mormons who traveled to Mexico in 1910 came back to Salt Lake City with marijuana. The church’s reaction to this may have contributed to the state’s marijuana law. (Note: the source for this speculation is from articles by Charles Whitebread, Professor of Law at USC Law School in a paper for the Virginia Law Review, and a speech to the California Judges Association (sourced below). Mormon blogger Ardis Parshall disputes this.)

Other states quickly followed suit with marijuana prohibition laws, including Wyoming (1915), Texas (1919), Iowa (1923), Nevada (1923), Oregon (1923), Washington (1923), Arkansas (1923), and Nebraska (1927). These laws tended to be specifically targeted against the Mexican-American population.

When Montana outlawed marijuana in 1927, the Butte Montana Standard reported a legislator’s comment: “When some beet field peon takes a few traces of this stuff… he thinks he has just been elected president of Mexico, so he starts out to execute all his political enemies.” In Texas, a senator said on the floor of the Senate: “All Mexicans are crazy, and this stuff [marijuana] is what makes them crazy.”

Jazz and Assassins

In the eastern states, the “problem” was attributed to a combination of Latin Americans and black jazz musicians. Marijuana and jazz traveled from New Orleans to Chicago, and then to Harlem, where marijuana became an indispensable part of the music scene, even entering the language of the black hits of the time (Louis Armstrong’s “Muggles”, Cab Calloway’s “That Funny Reefer Man”, Fats Waller’s “Viper’s Drag”).

Again, racism was part of the charge against marijuana, as newspapers in 1934 editorialized: “Marihuana influences Negroes to look at white people in the eye, step on white men’s shadows and look at a white woman twice.”

Two other fear-tactic rumors started to spread: one, that Mexicans, Blacks and other foreigners were snaring white children with marijuana; and two, the story of the “assassins.” Early stories of Marco Polo had told of “hasheesh-eaters” or hashashin, from which derived the term “assassin.” In the original stories, these professional killers were given large doses of hashish and brought to the ruler’s garden (to give them a glimpse of the paradise that awaited them upon successful completion of their mission). Then, after the effects of the drug disappeared, the assassin would fulfill his ruler’s wishes with cool, calculating loyalty.

By the 1930s, the story had changed. Dr. A. E. Fossier wrote in the 1931 New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal: “Under the influence of hashish those fanatics would madly rush at their enemies, and ruthlessly massacre every one within their grasp.” Within a very short time, marijuana started being linked to violent behavior.

Alcohol Prohibition and Federal Approaches to Drug Prohibition

During this time, the United States was also dealing with alcohol prohibition, which lasted from 1919 to 1933. Alcohol prohibition was extremely visible and debated at all levels, while drug laws were passed without the general public’s knowledge. National alcohol prohibition happened through the mechanism of an amendment to the constitution.

Earlier (1914), the Harrison Act was passed, which provided federal tax penalties for opiates and cocaine.

The federal approach is important. It was considered at the time that the federal government did not have the constitutional power to outlaw alcohol or drugs. It is because of this that alcohol prohibition required a constitutional amendment.

At that time in our country’s history, the judiciary regularly placed the tenth amendment in the path of congressional regulation of “local” affairs, and direct regulation of medical practice was considered beyond congressional power under the commerce clause (since then, both provisions have been weakened so far as to have almost no meaning).

Since drugs could not be outlawed at the federal level, the decision was made to use federal taxes as a way around the restriction. In the Harrison Act, legal uses of opiates and cocaine were taxed (supposedly as a revenue need by the federal government, which is the only way it would hold up in the courts), and those who didn’t follow the law found themselves in trouble with the treasury department.

In 1930, a new division in the Treasury Department was established — the Federal Bureau of Narcotics — and Harry J. Anslinger was named director. This, if anything, marked the beginning of the all-out war against marijuana.

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Harry J. Anslinger

Anslinger was an extremely ambitious man, and he recognized the Bureau of Narcotics as an amazing career opportunity — a new government agency with the opportunity to define both the problem and the solution. He immediately realized that opiates and cocaine wouldn’t be enough to help build his agency, so he latched on to marijuana and started to work on making it illegal at the federal level.

Anslinger immediately drew upon the themes of racism and violence to draw national attention to the problem he wanted to create. He also promoted and frequently read from “Gore Files” — wild reefer-madness-style exploitation tales of ax murderers on marijuana and sex and… Negroes. Here are some quotes that have been widely attributed to Anslinger and his Gore Files:

“There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos, and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz, and swing, result from marijuana use. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, entertainers, and any others.”

“…the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is its effect on the degenerate races.”

“Marijuana is an addictive drug which produces in its users insanity, criminality, and death.”

“Reefer makes darkies think they’re as good as white men.”

“Marihuana leads to pacifism and communist brainwashing”

“You smoke a joint and you’re likely to kill your brother.”

“Marijuana is the most violence-causing drug in the history of mankind.”

And he loved to pull out his own version of the “assassin” definition:

“In the year 1090, there was founded in Persia the religious and military order of the Assassins, whose history is one of cruelty, barbarity, and murder, and for good reason: the members were confirmed users of hashish, or marihuana, and it is from the Arabs’ ‘hashashin’ that we have the English word ‘assassin.'”

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Yellow Journalism

Harry Anslinger got some additional help from William Randolf Hearst, owner of a huge chain of newspapers. Hearst had lots of reasons to help. First, he hated Mexicans. Second, he had invested heavily in the timber industry to support his newspaper chain and didn’t want to see the development of hemp paper in competition. Third, he had lost 800,000 acres of timberland to Pancho Villa, so he hated Mexicans. Fourth, telling lurid lies about Mexicans (and the devil marijuana weed causing violence) sold newspapers, making him rich.

Some samples from the San Francisco Examiner:

“Marihuana makes fiends of boys in thirty days — Hashish goads users to bloodlust.”

“By the tons it is coming into this country — the deadly, dreadful poison that racks and tears not only the body, but the very heart and soul of every human being who once becomes a slave to it in any of its cruel and devastating forms…. Marihuana is a short cut to the insane asylum. Smoke marihuana cigarettes for a month and what was once your brain will be nothing but a storehouse of horrid specters. Hasheesh makes a murderer who kills for the love of killing out of the mildest mannered man who ever laughed at the idea that any habit could ever get him….”

And other nationwide columns…

“Users of marijuana become STIMULATED as they inhale the drug and are LIKELY TO DO ANYTHING. Most crimes of violence in this section, especially in country districts are laid to users of that drug.”

“Was it marijuana, the new Mexican drug, that nerved the murderous arm of Clara Phillips when she hammered out her victim’s life in Los Angeles?… THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CRIMES of violence in this country today are committed by DOPE SLAVES — that is a matter of cold record.”

Hearst and Anslinger were then supported by Dupont chemical company and various pharmaceutical companies in the effort to outlaw cannabis. Dupont had patented nylon, and wanted hemp removed as competition. The pharmaceutical companies could neither identify nor standardize cannabis dosages, and besides, with cannabis, folks could grow their own medicine and not have to purchase it from large companies.

This all set the stage for…

The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937.

After two years of secret planning, Anslinger brought his plan to Congress — complete with a scrapbook full of sensational Hearst editorials, stories of ax murderers who had supposedly smoked marijuana, and racial slurs.

It was a remarkably short set of hearings.

The one fly in Anslinger’s ointment was the appearance by Dr. William C. Woodward, Legislative Council of the American Medical Association.

Woodward started by slamming Harry Anslinger and the Bureau of Narcotics for distorting earlier AMA statements that had nothing to do with marijuana and making them appear to be AMA endorsement for Anslinger’s view.

He also reproached the legislature and the Bureau for using the term marijuana in the legislation and not publicizing it as a bill about cannabis or hemp. At this point, marijuana (or marihuana) was a sensationalist word used to refer to Mexicans smoking a drug and had not been connected in most people’s minds to the existing cannabis/hemp plant. Thus, many who had legitimate reasons to oppose the bill weren’t even aware of it.

Woodward went on to state that the AMA was opposed to the legislation and further questioned the approach of the hearings, coming close to outright accusation of misconduct by Anslinger and the committee:

“That there is a certain amount of narcotic addiction of an objectionable character no one will deny. The newspapers have called attention to it so prominently that there must be some grounds for [their] statements [even Woodward was partially taken in by Hearst’s propaganda]. It has surprised me, however, that the facts on which these statements have been based have not been brought before this committee by competent primary evidence. We are referred to newspaper publications concerning the prevalence of marihuana addiction. We are told that the use of marihuana causes crime.

But yet no one has been produced from the Bureau of Prisons to show the number of prisoners who have been found addicted to the marihuana habit. An informed inquiry shows that the Bureau of Prisons has no evidence on that point.

You have been told that school children are great users of marihuana cigarettes. No one has been summoned from the Children’s Bureau to show the nature and extent of the habit, among children.

Inquiry of the Children’s Bureau shows that they have had no occasion to investigate it and know nothing particularly of it.

Inquiry of the Office of Education— and they certainly should know something of the prevalence of the habit among the school children of the country, if there is a prevalent habit— indicates that they have had no occasion to investigate and know nothing of it.

Moreover, there is in the Treasury Department itself, the Public Health Service, with its Division of Mental Hygiene. The Division of Mental Hygiene was, in the first place, the Division of Narcotics. It was converted into the Division of Mental Hygiene, I think, about 1930. That particular Bureau has control at the present time of the narcotics farms that were created about 1929 or 1930 and came into operation a few years later. No one has been summoned from that Bureau to give evidence on that point.

Informal inquiry by me indicates that they have had no record of any marihuana of Cannabis addicts who have ever been committed to those farms.

The bureau of Public Health Service has also a division of pharmacology. If you desire evidence as to the pharmacology of Cannabis, that obviously is the place where you can get direct and primary evidence, rather than the indirect hearsay evidence.”

Committee members then proceeded to attack Dr. Woodward, questioning his motives in opposing the legislation. Even the Chairman joined in:

The Chairman: If you want to advise us on legislation, you ought to come here with some constructive proposals, rather than criticism, rather than trying to throw obstacles in the way of something that the Federal Government is trying to do. It has not only an unselfish motive in this, but they have a serious responsibility.

Dr. Woodward: We cannot understand yet, Mr. Chairman, why this bill should have been prepared in secret for 2 years without any intimation, even, to the profession, that it was being prepared.

After some further bantering…

The Chairman: I would like to read a quotation from a recent editorial in the Washington Times:

The marihuana cigarette is one of the most insidious of all forms of dope, largely because of the failure of the public to understand its fatal qualities.

The Nation is almost defenseless against it, having no Federal laws to cope with it and virtually no organized campaign for combating it.

The result is tragic.

School children are the prey of peddlers who infest school neighborhoods.

High school boys and girls buy the destructive weed without knowledge of its capacity of harm, and conscienceless dealers sell it with impunity.

This is a national problem, and it must have national attention.

The fatal marihuana cigarette must be recognized as a deadly drug, and American children must be protected against it.

That is a pretty severe indictment. They say it is a national question and that it requires effective legislation. Of course, in a general way, you have responded to all of these statements; but that indicates very clearly that it is an evil of such magnitude that it is recognized by the press of the country as such.

And that was basically it. Yellow journalism won over medical science.

The committee passed the legislation on. And on the floor of the house, the entire discussion was:

Member from upstate New York: “Mr. Speaker, what is this bill about?”

Speaker Rayburn: “I don’t know. It has something to do with a thing called marihuana. I think it’s a narcotic of some kind.”

“Mr. Speaker, does the American Medical Association support this bill?”

Member on the committee jumps up and says: “Their Doctor Wentworth[sic] came down here. They support this bill 100 percent.”

And on the basis of that lie, on August 2, 1937, marijuana became illegal at the federal level.

The entire coverage in the New York Times: “President Roosevelt signed today a bill to curb traffic in the narcotic, marihuana, through heavy taxes on transactions.”

Anslinger as precursor to the Drug Czars

Anslinger was essentially the first Drug Czar. Even though the term didn’t exist until William Bennett’s position as director of the White House Office of National Drug Policy, Anslinger acted in a similar fashion. In fact, there are some amazing parallels between Anslinger and the current Drug Czar John Walters. Both had kind of a carte blanche to go around demonizing drugs and drug users. Both had resources and a large public podium for their voice to be heard and to promote their personal agenda. Both lied constantly, often when it was unnecessary. Both were racists. Both had the ear of lawmakers, and both realized that they could persuade legislators and others based on lies, particularly if they could co-opt the media into squelching or downplaying any opposition views.

Anslinger even had the ability to circumvent the First Amendment. He banned the Canadian movie “Drug Addict,” a 1946 documentary that realistically depicted the drug addicts and law enforcement efforts. He even tried to get Canada to ban the movie in their own country, or failing that, to prevent U.S. citizens from seeing the movie in Canada. Canada refused. (Today, Drug Czar John Walters is trying to bully Canada into keeping harsh marijuana laws.)

Anslinger had 37 years to solidify the propaganda and stifle opposition. The lies continued the entire time (although the stories would adjust — the 21 year old Florida boy who killed his family of five got younger each time he told it). In 1961, he looked back at his efforts:

“Much of the most irrational juvenile violence and that has written a new chapter of shame and tragedy is traceable directly to this hemp intoxication. A gang of boys tear the clothes from two school girls and rape the screaming girls, one boy after the other. A sixteen-year-old kills his entire family of five in Florida, a man in Minnesota puts a bullet through the head of a stranger on the road; in Colorado husband tries to shoot his wife, kills her grandmother instead and then kills himself. Every one of these crimes had been proceeded [sic] by the smoking of one or more marijuana “reefers.” As the marijuana situation grew worse, I knew action had to be taken to get the proper legislation passed. By 1937 under my direction, the Bureau launched two important steps First, a legislative plan to seek from Congress a new law that would place marijuana and its distribution directly under federal control. Second, on radio and at major forums, such that presented annually by the New York Herald Tribune, I told the story of this evil weed of the fields and river beds and roadsides. I wrote articles for magazines; our agents gave hundreds of lectures to parents, educators, social and civic leaders. In network broadcasts I reported on the growing list of crimes, including murder and rape. I described the nature of marijuana and its close kinship to hashish. I continued to hammer at the facts.

I believe we did a thorough job, for the public was alerted and the laws to protect them were passed, both nationally and at the state level. We also brought under control the wild growing marijuana in this country. Working with local authorities, we cleaned up hundreds of acres of marijuana and we uprooted plants sprouting along the roadsides.”

After Anslinger

On a break from college in the 70s, I was visiting a church in rural Illinois. There in the literature racks in the back of the church was a lurid pamphlet about the evils of marijuana — all the old reefer madness propaganda about how it caused insanity and murder. I approached the minister and said “You can’t have this in your church. It’s all lies, and the church shouldn’t be about promoting lies.” Fortunately, my dad believed me, and he had the material removed. He didn’t even know how it got there. But without me speaking up, neither he nor the other members of the church had any reason NOT to believe what the pamphlet said. The propaganda machine had been that effective.

The narrative since then has been a continual litany of:

  • Politicians wanting to appear tough on crime and passing tougher penalties
  • Constant increases in spending on law enforcement and prisons
  • Racist application of drug laws
  • Taxpayer funded propaganda
  • Stifling of opposition speech
  • Political contributions from corporations that profit from marijuana being illegal (pharmaceuticals, alcohol, etc.)

… but that’s another whole story.


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